Chapter One. The discovery that complements the Kepler's laws of planetary motion
The discovery that complements the Kepler's laws of planetary motion
"Science is not and will never be a completed book” - these words of Einstein as better as possible anticipate our first chapter.
In due course, Galilee hadn’t been supporting the idea about elliptical orbits and uneven motion of planets on their orbits, considering that the circular uniform movement takes place in the universe.
In the early 17th century Johannes Kepler formulated three laws of planetary motion relatively to the Sun. The first law says:"The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the foci." Kepler studied experiments of many scientists, but couldn’t explain why the orbits of planets are elliptical.
We, having studied his theory, can offer an explanation that is complementing the Johannes Kepler’s laws and discovering the cause of elliptical orbits’ forming.
It is well known that the Moon is revolving around the Earth during one lunar month which is not equal to a calendar month. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth about once every 27.3 days. The diameter of Moon is 0.273 of Earth’s diameter, observe how interesting these numbers correlate to each other! The Earth revolves around its axis 27.3 times while the Moon makes a rotation around Earth. Perhaps, the Earth’s rotation around its axis depends on the correlation between Earth and Moon? But before this let’s return to our subject.
If examine figure-1, we see the Moon which revolves around Earth. If the Earth haven’t been revolving around the Sun but standing in one point, then the orbit of Moon would look perfect circular, just like it is represented on figure-1.
But the Earth doesn’t stand in one place, it revolves around the Sun with an average velocity of 29,765 km/s. Figure-2 is an instance for representing the forming of elliptical orbit: during two days, the Moon passes the way on its orbit that is represented by the length from point A to point B. At the same time, the Earth’s way, which it passes around the Sun during two days, is represented by the length from point C to point D. The Earth, passing the way from point C to point D, is already not being in the centre of the Moon’s orbit, it moved away from the Moon on a great distance, because their directions don’t coincide. It is necessary to define more precisely that the direction of Earth’s moving is perpendicularly to the direction of Moon’s motion. The Moon is passing the way from point A to point B during two days, the Earth is moving from point C to point D with a velocity of 29,765 km/s, to find the distance which Earth passed away from the Moon we multiply Earth’s velocity (29,765 km/s) by two days. If the Earth during these two days passes away from point in which it was before, then it’s impossible for the Moon to have a circular orbit.
The aforesaid allows us to make the following conclusion: due to that Earth is moving, and the direction of its motion doesn’t coincide with the direction of Moon’s motion the orbit of Moon has an elliptical form.
If face the well-known astronomical data about that all the stars in the Universe revolve around a common centre, then it means that the Sun doesn’t stand in a point, but moves around the centre of Galaxy. On the figure-3 it is marked with an arrow the direction of the Sun’s motion around the centre of Galaxy and in the same way the Earth’s and Moon’s on their orbits. The Sun moves unchangeably in one direction around the centre of Galaxy. The Earth moves around the Sun in a same direction, but relatively to the centre of Galaxy it changes its direction biannual. When the direction of Sun and Earth’s direction of motion don’t coincide to the centre of Galaxy, like it is represented on figure-3, the Sun and the Earth are moving away from each other, and this influences the forming of the elliptical orbit.
In January the Earth has the closest position to the Sun, its velocity at this moment is at maximum. During a half of year (since June till January), the Earth’s velocity increases. During the next half of year (since January till June), the velocity of Earth decreases. If take a look to figure-3, we see the following: the direction of Earth’s motion is perpendicularly to the direction of motion of Sun, the velocity in course of this length is minimal.
If examine figure-4, we see the following: the direction of Sun and Earth’s direction coincide relatively to the centre of Galaxy, at this time the Sun and the Earth approach to each other.
All the planets from the Solar system obey the given regularity: they have elliptical orbits, what in due course had been affirmed by Kepler. We discovered the mechanism of forming of elliptical orbits, that is to say we explained that that Kepler couldn’t explain.
The conclusion of our first chapter is the following regularity:
By reason of that that the directions of motion of Moon and Earth relatively to the Sun don’t coincide always, the orbit of Moon has an elliptical form.